Complex Segment Learner

Complex Segment Learner

These are the demo simulations for the learner described in the paper Learning Complex Segments, by Maria Gouskova and Juliet Stanton. Click on a language to view its simulations.

Language Variety Family Complex segments usually posited (*=controversial)
Shona Zezuru Niger-Congo affricates, labialized, coronal-velar*, prenasalized
Latin Classical / Pseudo-Italian Indo-European kw*, ɡw* / ts, dz, tʃ, dʒ
Sundanese Austronesian mb*, nd*, ŋɡ*, ɲc*
Mbay Nilo-Saharan mb, nd, ŋɡ, nɟ
Fijian Boumaa Austronesian mb, nd, ŋɡ, nr, tʃ, ndʒ
Wolof Niger-Congo mb, nd, ŋɡ, ɴq, mp*, nt*, ŋk*, ɴq*
Ngbaka Niger-Congo mb, nd, nz, ŋɡ, ŋm, kp, ɡb, ŋmɡb, vw, nw
Wargamay Pama-Nyungan none
Yindjibarndi Pama-Nyungan none
French European / Quebecois Indo-European none / ts, dz
English American Indo-European tʃ, dʒ
Turkish Standard Turkic tʃ, dʒ
Greek Modern standard Indo-European ts*, dz*
German Standard Indo-European ts*, pf*, tʃ*, dʒ*
Russian Standard Indo-European ts, tɕ
Polish Standard Indo-European ts, tɕ, ʈʂ, dz, dʑ, ɖʐ, palatalized*
Hungarian Standard Uralic ts, tʃ, dʒ*
Hebrew Modern standard Semitic ts, tʃ*, dʒ*
Navajo Athabaskan ts, ts', dz, tʃ, tʃ', dʒ, tɬ, tɬ', dɮ
Mongolian Khalkha Mongolic ts, tsʰ, tʃ, tʃʰ
Italian Standard Indo-European tʃ, ts, dʒ, dz
Aymara Bolivian Aymaran tʃ, tʃ', tʃʰ
Quechua Bolivian Quechuan tʃ, tʃ', tʃʰ
Tswana Sengwato / Standard Niger-Congo varies by dialect