Classical / Pseudo-Italian Latin (Indo-European)
Latin has its own section in the paper, which reviews the arguments for [kw] and [gw] as complex segments. We find these arguments to be dubious. The "Affricated" version of the Latin dataset was created to test the hypothesis that complex segments have the distributions of singleton consonants because they come from singletons affected by systematic sound change. This simulation applies palatalization sound changes to Latin to create "pseudo-Italian".
Simulation data at a glance
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|Simulation name||Initial state Learning Data||Initial state features|
Simulation details for Latin whitaker affricated
This 84,000+ word list comes from Whitaker's dictionary of Latin, widely available online. It was converted to IPA from orthography by substituting geminates with singleton symbols. Vowel length is not marked in this dictionary so it is not represented in the data file.
This particular version of the dataset tests a hypothesis about the changing frequency distributions that come with sound change. In the history of Latin, palatalization affected [t, d, k, g] before front vowels and glides. This resulted in a variety of changes--for example, in modern Italian, [ts, dz, tʃ, dʒ] originated from Latin stops in those invironments (simplifying somewhat). We took our basic Latin dictionary and applied the changes, rewriting [t i] with [t s i], [k i] with [t ʃ i], and so on (just before [i]). The result is that the learner unified all four sequences into affricates.