Standard Hungarian (Uralic)
Hungarian is analyzed as having the alveolar and postalveolar/palatal affricates in Siptár and Törkenczy's (2000) book, Phonology of Hungarian. The arguments, we think, are not super clear, since Hungarian is fairly permissive phonotactically. There are stop-fricative sequences in the language, and while they are etymologically foreign, they can occur in the same environments as the purported affricates. The weakness of the arguments is in line with the inconsistent findings of the learner.
The closest the learner comes to the inventory posited by traditional analyses of the langugae is when it is trained on the list of stems/roots. This could be due to the agglutinative morphology of the language; the clusters found in morphologically complex words are more diverse than those in morphemes, so the affricates' share of the distribution is lower in words than in morphemes.
Simulation data at a glance
Click on simulation name to view additional simulation details.
|Simulation name||Initial state Learning Data||Initial state features|
Simulation details for Hungarian words narrowThe narrow transcriptions allow the learner to find the postalveolar voiceless affricates but nothing else. In particular, [ts] is well below the threshold. This could be because morphological complexity dilutes the frequency of affricates, as it does in Quechua (see the discussion in the paper).
Data prepared by Ildi Emese Szabó from the Szótár AdatBázis 1.0 dictionary (Details here). Apart from substituting affricate symbols with corresponding stop-fricative symbols, this version of the data has narrow allophones for the stop portions of postalveolars--transcribed as [cʃ] and [ɟʒ].